Python 2.3 introduced the sets module. C implementations of set data types have now been added to the Python core as two new built-in types, set(iterable) and frozenset(iterable). They provide high speed operations for membership testing, for eliminating duplicates from sequences, and for mathematical operations like unions, intersections, differences, and symmetric differences.
>>> a = set('abracadabra') # form a set from a string >>> 'z' in a # fast membership testing False >>> a # unique letters in a set(['a', 'r', 'b', 'c', 'd']) >>> ''.join(a) # convert back into a string 'arbcd' >>> b = set('alacazam') # form a second set >>> a - b # letters in a but not in b set(['r', 'd', 'b']) >>> a | b # letters in either a or b set(['a', 'c', 'r', 'd', 'b', 'm', 'z', 'l']) >>> a & b # letters in both a and b set(['a', 'c']) >>> a ^ b # letters in a or b but not both set(['r', 'd', 'b', 'm', 'z', 'l']) >>> a.add('z') # add a new element >>> a.update('wxy') # add multiple new elements >>> a set(['a', 'c', 'b', 'd', 'r', 'w', 'y', 'x', 'z']) >>> a.remove('x') # take one element out >>> a set(['a', 'c', 'b', 'd', 'r', 'w', 'y', 'z'])
The frozenset type is an immutable version of set. Since it is immutable and hashable, it may be used as a dictionary key or as a member of another set.
The sets module remains in the standard library, and may be useful if you wish to subclass the Set or ImmutableSet classes. There are currently no plans to deprecate the module.
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