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Recipe 6.8 Back Up Selected Objects to Another Database
You use a standard backup program to save your databases, but this works only at the database level. This is fine for archival purposes, but you often want to back up individual objects. How can you get Access to display a list of objects and allow you to save selected ones to an output database you specify?
Open frmBackup from 06-08.MDB (Figure 6-11). You can use this form to back up selected objects from the current database to another database. Select one or more objects from the list box, using the Shift or Ctrl keys to extend the selection. When you are finished selecting objects and have specified a backup database (a default database name is created for you), press the Backup button. The backup process will begin, copying objects from the current database to the backup database.
To add this functionality to your own database, follow these steps:
To see how it works, open frmBackup in design view. The form consists of a list box, two text boxes (one of which is initially hidden), and other controls. The list box control displays the list of objects. One text box is used to gather the name of the backup database; the other is used to display the progress of the backup operation. All of the VBA code that makes frmBackup work is stored in the form's module.
184.108.40.206 The MultiSelect property
The key control on the form is the lboObjects list box. We have taken advantage of the list box's MultiSelect property to allow the user to select more than one item in the list box. This property can be set to None, Simple, or Extended (see Figure 6-12). If you set MultiSelect to None, which is the default setting, only one item may be selected. If you choose Simple, you can select multiple items, and an item will be selected whenever you click on it and will remain selected until you click on it again. If you choose Extended, the list box will behave like most of Windows's built-in list box controls—you select multiple items by holding down the Shift or Ctrl keys while clicking on items.
220.127.116.11 Filling the lboObjects list box
Unlike most list boxes, which derive their lists of values from either a fixed list of items or the rows from a table or query, lboObjects uses a list-filling callback function to fill the list box with the names of the database container objects. List-filling functions are described in detail in the Solution in Recipe 7.5. We use a list-filling function here because the list of database container objects is not stored in a user-accessible table. (Actually, you can fill a list box with a list of database container objects using a query based on the undocumented MSysObjects system table, but this practice is not supported by Microsoft and therefore is not recommended.) The list-filling function for lboObjects, FillObjectList, is shown here:
Private Function FillObjectList(ctl As Control, varID As Variant, _ varRow As Variant, varCol As Variant, varCode As Variant) As Variant ' List filling function for lboObjects. ' Fills the list box with a list of ' the database container objects. Dim varRetVal As Variant Static sintRows As Integer Dim itemInfo As Info varRetVal = Null Select Case varCode Case acLBInitialize ' Fill mcolInfo with a list of ' database container objects Set mcolInfo = New Collection sintRows = FillObjCollection( ) varRetVal = True Case acLBOpen varRetVal = Timer Case acLBGetRowCount varRetVal = sintRows Case acLBGetColumnCount varRetVal = 4 Case acLBGetValue ' varRow and varCol are zero-based so add 1 Set itemInfo = mcolInfo(varRow + 1) Select Case varCol Case 0 varRetVal = itemInfo.ObjectType Case 1 varRetVal = itemInfo.ObjectName Case 2 varRetVal = itemInfo.DateCreated Case 3 varRetVal = itemInfo.LastUpdated End Select Case acLBEnd Set mcolInfo = New Collection End Select FillObjectList = varRetVal End Function
FillObjectList looks like most typical list-filling functions (see the Solution in Recipe 7.5 for more details). Most of the work is done during the initialization step, when the FillObjCollection function is called to fill a module-level collection with the list of database container objects:
Public Function FillObjCollection( ) As Integer ' Populates mcolInfo array with database container objects. Dim db As DAO.Database Dim con As DAO.Container Dim doc As DAO.Document Dim tdf As DAO.TableDef Dim qdf As DAO.QueryDef Dim strObjType As String Dim intObjCount As Integer Dim intItem As Integer Dim fReturn As Boolean On Error Resume Next Set db = CurrentDb( ) ' Setup the first row of field names Call SaveToCollection("Type", "Name", "DateCreated", _ "LastUpdated") ' Special case TableDefs db.TableDefs.Refresh For Each tdf In db.TableDefs ' Only include non-system tables If Not (tdf.Attributes And dbSystemObject) <> 0 Then Call SaveToCollection("Table", tdf.Name, tdf.DateCreated, _ tdf.LastUpdated) End If Next tdf ' Special case QueryDefs db.QueryDefs.Refresh For Each qdf In db.QueryDefs Call SaveToCollection("Query", qdf.Name, qdf.DateCreated, _ qdf.LastUpdated) Next qdf ' Iterate through remaining containers of interest ' and then each document within the container For Each con In db.Containers Select Case con.Name Case "Scripts" strObjType = "Macro" Case "Forms" strObjType = "Form" Case "Modules" strObjType = "Module" Case "Reports" strObjType = "Report" Case Else strObjType = "" End Select ' If this isn't one of the important containers, don't ' bother listing documents. If strObjType <> "" Then con.Documents.Refresh For Each doc In con.Documents ' You can't backup the current form, since it's open. If Not (doc.Name = Me.Name And con.Name = "Forms") Then fReturn = SaveToCollection(strObjType, doc.Name, doc.DateCreated, _ doc.LastUpdated) End If Next doc End If Next con FillObjCollection = mcolInfo.Count End Function
The purpose of FillObjCollection is to fill a Collection object with a list of the names of each database container object, the type of each object, the date and time each object was created, and the date and time each object was last modified. Each item within this collection is an instance of the Info class, defined in the sample database. (Although the use of user-defined classes is beyond the scope of this book, you can investigate the Info class and see that it's quite simple. It behaves just like any other object available as part of Access or VBA—the only difference is that it's defined within your project.) In order to gather the necessary information, the code must work through all the available objects. This is accomplished by "walking" the Containers collection of the current database and working with the objects in each of the containers. There are eight different containers in the Containers collection, which are summarized in Table 6-7.
Because you are interested in backing up only the objects that appear in the Access database container, the function should ignore any containers in Table 6-7 for which "Backup documents" is No.
FillObjArray places the list box headings in the first item of the array:
' Set up the first row of field names Call SaveToCollection("Type", "Name", "DateCreated", _ "LastUpdated")
We want the information in this first row to become the headings of the list box, so we set the ColumnHeads property of the list box to Yes. This setting tells Access to freeze the first row of the list box so that it doesn't scroll with the other rows. In addition, you cannot select this special row.
The function needs to walk the collections storing away the information that will appear in the list box. This should be relatively simple, but there is one complicating factor: the Tables container includes both tables and queries, mixed together in unsorted order. Fortunately, there's an alternate method for getting separate lists of tables and queries in the database. Instead of using the Tables container, FillObjCollection walks the TableDefs and QueryDefs collections to extract the necessary information:
' Special case TableDefs db.TableDefs.Refresh For Each tdf In db.TableDefs ' Only include non-system tables If Not (tdf.Attributes And dbSystemObject) <> 0 Then Call SaveToCollection("Table", tdf.Name, tdf.DateCreated, _ tdf.LastUpdated) End If Next tdf ' Special case QueryDefs db.QueryDefs.Refresh For Each qdf In db.QueryDefs Call SaveToCollection("Query", qdf.Name, qdf.DateCreated, _ qdf.LastUpdated) Next qdf
With the tables and queries taken care of, the function can now walk the remaining container collections for macros, forms, modules, and reports:
' Iterate through remaining containers of interest ' and then each document within the container For Each con In db.Containers Select Case con.Name Case "Scripts" strObjType = "Macro" Case "Forms" strObjType = "Form" Case "Modules" strObjType = "Module" Case "Reports" strObjType = "Report" Case Else strObjType = "" End Select ' If this isn't one of the important containers, don't ' bother listing documents. If strObjType <> "" Then con.Documents.Refresh For Each doc In con.Documents ' You can't backup the current form, since it's open. If Not (doc.Name = Me.Name And con.Name = "Forms") Then fReturn = SaveToCollection(strObjType, doc.Name, _ doc.DateCreated, doc.LastUpdated) End If Next doc End If Next con
The SaveToCollection subroutine called by FillObjArray is shown here:
Private Function SaveToCollection(ByVal strType As String, ByVal strName As String, _ ByVal strDateCreated As String, ByVal strLastUpdated As String) As Boolean ' Skip deleted objects Dim itemInfo As Info Set itemInfo = New Info If Left$(strName, 1) <> "~" Then itemInfo.ObjectType = strType itemInfo.ObjectName = strName itemInfo.DateCreated = strDateCreated itemInfo.LastUpdated = strLastUpdated mcolInfo.Add itemInfo SaveToCollection = True Else SaveToCollection = False End If End Function
Access doesn't immediately remove database container objects that you have deleted. Instead, it renames each deleted object to a name that begins with "~TMPCLP". In addition, when you use SQL statements for row sources or record sources, Access creates hidden queries with names that also start with a tilde character ("~"). We don't want these objects to appear in the list of objects to back up, so we included code here to exclude them explicitly from the list box.
18.104.22.168 The backup process
Once you have selected one or more database objects in the lboObjects list box, you initiate the backup process by clicking on the cmdBackup command button. The event procedure attached to this button calls the MakeBackup subroutine. This routine begins by checking to see if the backup database exists. If it does, you are warned that it will be overwritten before proceeding. Next, MakeBackup creates the output database using the following code:
Set dbOutput = DBEngine.Workspaces(0). _ CreateDatabase(strOutputDatabase, dbLangGeneral) dbOutput.Close
The output database is immediately closed, because the backup process doesn't require it to be open. MakeBackup then iterates through the selected objects and calls ExportObject, passing it the name of the output database and the name and type of the object to be backed up:
intObjCnt = 0 ctlProgress = "Backing up objects..." For Each varItem In ctlObjects.ItemsSelected intObjCnt = intObjCnt + 1 strType = ctlObjects.Column(0, varItem) strName = ctlObjects.Column(1, varItem) ctlProgress = "Backing up " & strName & "..." DoEvents Call ExportObject(strOutputDatabase, strType, strName) Next varItem
Private Sub ExportObject(strOutputDatabase As String, _ strType As String, strName As String) Dim intType As Integer Select Case strType Case "Table" intType = acTable Case "Query" intType = acQuery Case "Form" intType = acForm Case "Report" intType = acReport Case "Macro" intType = acMacro Case "Module" intType = acModule End Select ' If export fails, let the user know. On Error Resume Next DoCmd.CopyObject strOutputDatabase, strName, intType, strName If Err.Number <> 0 Then Beep MsgBox "Unable to backup " & strType & ": " & strName, _ vbOKOnly + vbCritical, "ExportObject" End If End Sub
This technique uses the CopyObject action instead of the more traditional TransferDatabase action. CopyObject, which was added in Access 2.0, provides you with the same functionality as TransferDatabase, but because it supports only Access objects it requires fewer arguments. The CopyObject action also allows you to specify a new name for the object in the destination database. This is useful if you want give the copy a name that's different from that of the source object.
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