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Conventions Used in This Book

The following is a list of the typographical conventions used in this book:

Plain text

Indicates options, queries, and options entered using Access's graphical user interface (GUI), including table titles, cell identifiers, named ranges, menu titles, menu options, menu buttons, and keyboard accelerators (such as Alt and Ctrl).


Indicates URLs, filenames, filename extensions, and directory/folder names. For example, a path in the filesystem appears as /Developer/ Applications.

Constant width

Shows code examples, the contents of files, console output, as well as the names of variables, commands, functions, macros, statements, command-line queries, and other code excerpts.

Constant width bold

Highlights portions of code, typically new additions to old code.

Constant width italic

Used in code examples and tables to show sample text to be replaced with your own values.


The second color indicates a cross reference within the text.

You should pay special attention to notes set apart from the text with the following icons:

This is a tip, suggestion, or general note. It contains useful supplementary information about the topic at hand.

This is a warning or note of caution, often indicating that your money or your privacy might be at risk.

The thermometer icons, found next to each hack, indicate the relative complexity of the hack:

beginner moderate expert

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