- abstract entity
An entity that models relationships between other entities.
- ad hoc report
A report that is configured by the user after implementation of the application.
- aggregate function
A SQL function that returns summary values.
- alternate key
A candidate key of a relation that is not used as the primary key of a table.
The forms and reports with which the user interacts.
A column in a relation.
- base relation
A relation that is instantiated as a table in the database.
- binary relationship
A relationship having two participants.
- Boolean expression
An expression that results in either True or False.
- business constraint
A constraint derived from the problem space.
- business rule
An integrity constraint that originates in the problem space rather than from relational theory.
- candidate key
One or more attributes that uniquely identify a relation.
- cardinality of a relation
The number of rows in a relation.
- cardinality of a relationship
The maximum number of instances of one entity that can participate in a relationship.
- Cartesian product
A relational operation that combines every record in one recordset with every record in a second recordset.
- cascading delete
The automatic deletion of records in a foreign table when the corresponding record in the primary table is deleted.
- cascading update
The automatic updating of records in a foreign table when the corresponding record in the primary table is changed.
The principle that all operations on a relation result in a relation and can be used for further manipulation.
- command vector
A path to the execution of a command in a user interface, for example, a menu item or a toolbar button.
- composite entity
A single entity in the problem space that is modeled by one or more relations.
- composite key
A candidate key composed of two or more attributes.
- concrete entity
An entity that models an object or event in the real world.
- conventional value
An arbitrary value used to represent a nonexistent or unknown value.
The combination of the database schema and the stored data.
- database access object model
A software library used to communicate between a database engine and a development environment.
- database application
The forms and reports with which the user interacts.
- database constraint
An integrity constraint that references multiple relations.
- database engine
The software that handles the physical storage and manipulation of data.
- database schema
The physical layout of tables in a database.
- database system
The combination of the database application, database engine, and database.
- data integrity
The rules used by a database to ensure that the data is, if not correct, at least plausible.
- data model
The conceptual description of a problem space in relational terms.
- declarative integrity
A method of defining integrity constraints by explicitly declaring them as part of a table definition.
- degree of a relation
The number of columns in a relation.
- degree of a relationship
The number of participants in a relationship.
- derived relation
A virtual relation that is defined in terms of other relations.
The range of values from which an attribute can be drawn.
- domain constraint
An integrity constraint that determines the range of possible values for a domain.
Anything about which the system needs to store information.
- entity constraint
An integrity constraint that ensures the validity of the entities being modeled by the system.
A join between two tables on the basis of equality.
The physical representation of an attribute in a database.
- foreign relation
The relation that receives the primary key of the other participant in a relationship.
- full outer join
An outer join that returns all fields from both participants.
- functional dependency
A relationship between two attributes such that the value of one attribute determines the value in the other.
- inner join
A join that returns records only when the result of an operation is True.
- integrity constraint
A data integrity rule.
- intrinsic constraint
A constraint that governs the physical structure of the database.
- join dependency
A cyclical relationship between three relations.
- junction table
A table that represents a relationship in the database.
- left outer join
An outer join that returns all fields from the first recordset listed in a SELECT statement.
- logical data type
A generic indication of a domain such as "String" or "Number", without reference to specific physical data types.
- logical operator
An operator that returns a Boolean result.
- lossless decomposition
The ability to divide relations in such a manner that they can be recombined without loss of information.
- multivalued dependency pairs
Mutually independent sets of attributes participating in functional dependencies.
- natural join
A special case of an equi-join in which the join is performed on the basis of equality, all common fields participate in the join, and only one set of common fields is included in the result set.
- normal forms
Rules for defining the structure of relations in order to eliminate update anomalies.
The process of structuring a database schema to ensure data integrity, remove redundancy, and assist in data retrieval.
- orphan entity
A weak entity that is not related to an entity in the primary relation of a relationship.
- outer join
A join that returns all the records of an inner join plus all the records in either or both of the other participants.
- partial participation
The entity can exist independent of its participation in the specified relationship.
An entity that is associated to another in a relationship.
- passive user assistance
A user assistance mechanism that is an intrinsic part of the user interface.
- primary key
The candidate key of a relation that is used to uniquely identify the records in a table.
- primary relation
The relation whose primary key is stored in the other participant in a relationship.
- proactive user assistance
A user assistance mechanism that attempts to anticipate the users' needs.
- problem space
The portion of the real world that is to be modeled by a database application.
- procedural integrity
A method of enforcing data integrity by creating procedures that are executed automatically when a record is updated, inserted, or deleted.
A derived relation in Microsoft Access.
- reactive user assistance
A user assistance mechanism that is triggered by some action by the user, such as an invalid entry or the request for online help.
The physical representation of a tuple.
The generic term used in Microsoft Access to mean the physical representation of a relation.
- referential integrity
The integrity constraints that ensure that relationships between entities remain valid.
- regular entity
An entity that can exist without participating in a relationship.
A logical construct that organizes data into rows and columns.
- relation body
The tuples comprising a relation.
- relation heading
The definition of the attribute and domain at the top of a relation.
- relational database
A physical implementation of the relational model defined by Dr. E. F. Codd.
- relational difference
A relational operation that returns the records of one recordset that are not matched in another recordset.
- relational divide
A join that returns all the records in one recordset that have values that match all the corresponding values in the second recordset.
- relational intersection
A relational operation that returns the records two recordsets have in common.
- relational union
The concatenation of two recordsets.
An association between two or more entities.
- right outer join
An outer join that returns all fields from the second recordset listed in a SELECT statement.
- scalar value
A single, non-repeating value.
The physical layout of tables in a database system.
- simple key
A candidate key composed of a single attribute.
- standard report
A report that can be defined and implemented as part of the database application.
The physical instantiation of a relation in the database schema.
A discrete step in a work process.
- ternary relationship
A relationship having three participants.
Technically, any join based on a comparison operator, but normally restricted to joins based on operators other than equality.
- three-valued logic
A model for logical evaluation that allows the values True, False, and Null as results of expressions.
- total participation
The entity cannot exist unless it participates in the specified relationship.
- transaction integrity
An integrity constraint that controls the validity of multiple operations on the database.
Procedural code that is executed when a specified database event occurs.
A row in a relation.
- type-compatible domains
Domains that can be logically compared.
- unary relationship
An association between a relation and itself.
- update anomaly
Problems with data manipulation resulting from a poorly designed data model.
A derived relation in SQL Server.
- weak entity
An entity that can exist only if it participates in a given relationship.
- work process
Something that is to be done using the database application.